Foundational materials

Reading and Writing the Morphogenetic Code
Foundational White Paper of the Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University

Recent publications

Are planaria individuals? What regenerative biology is telling us about the nature of multicellularity
Fields, C., and Levin, M., (2018), Evolutionary Biology, DOI: 10.1007/s11692-018-9448-9

HCN2 Rescues brain defects by enforcing endogenous voltage pre-patterns
Pai, V. P., Pietak, A., Willocq, V., Ye, B., Shi, N-Q., and Levin, M., (2018), Nature Communications, 9(998): doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03334-5

Booting up the organism during development: pre-behavioral functions of the vertebrate brain in guiding body morphogenesis
Herrera-Rincon, C., and Levin, M., (2018), Communicative & Integrative Biology, DOI: 10.1080/19420889.2018.1433440

Embodying Markov blankets. Comment on ‘Answering Schrödinger’s question: A free-energy formulation’ by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.
Pezzulo, G., and Levin, M., (2017), Physics of Life Reviews, in press

Ion channel and neurotransmitter modulators as electroceutical approaches to the control of cancer
Tuszynski, J., Tilli, T. M., Levin, M., (2017), Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(32):4827-4841

Identification of regenerative roadblocks via repeat deployment of limb regeneration in axolotls
Bryant, D.M. et al., (2017), npj Regenerative Medicine, 2:30

Multiscale Memory And Bioelectric Error Correction In The Cytoplasm-Cytoskeleton-Membrane System
Fields, C., and Levin, M., (2017), WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine, e1410. doi:10.1002/wsbm.1410

How the Chicken and the Egg Taught us to Tell Right From Left: Contribution of Avian Models to the Study of Invariant Asymmetry in Embryogenesis
Monsoro-Burq, A.H., and Levin, M., (2017), International Journal of Developmental Biology, in press

The brain is required for normal muscle and nerve patterning during early Xenopus development
Herrera-Rincon, C., Pai, V. P., Moran, K. M., Lemire, J. M., and Levin, M., (2017), Nature Communications, 8:587

Coordinating heart morphogenesis: A novel role for Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotidegated (HCN) channels during cardiogenesis in Xenopus laevis
Pitcairn, E., Harris, H., Epiney, J., Pai, V. P., Lemire, J. M., Ye, B., Shi, N-Q., Levin, M., and McLaughlin K. A., (2017), Communicative & Integrative Biology, 10:3, e1309488 [cover]

Inverse Drug Screening for Bioelectric and Neurotransmitter Roles: Sample use in a Xenopus Tail Regeneration Assay
Levin, M., and Sullivan, K. G., (2017), Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, in press

Bioelectric Signaling in Regeneration: Mechanisms of Ionic Controls of Growth and Form
McLaughlin, K. A., Levin, M., (2017), Developmental Biology, 433: 177–189

Collective Growth in a Small Cell Network
Alsous, J. I., Villoutreix, P., Berezhkovskii, A. M., and Shvartsman, S. Y., (2017), Current Biology; doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.038

Bioelectric Gene and Reaction Networks: Computational Modeling of Genetic, Biochemical, and Bioelectrical Dynamics in Pattern Regulation
Pietak, A. M., and Levin, M., (2017), J. Royal Society Interface, 14: 20170425 [cover]

The Bioelectric Code: An Ancient Computational Medium for Dynamic Control of Growth and Form
Martyniuk, C., and Levin, M., (2017), BioSystems, 2017 Sep 2. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2017.08.009

HCN4 Ion Channel Function is Required for Early Events that Regulate Anatomical Left-Right Patterning in a Nodal- and Lefty Asymmetric gene Expression-Independent Manner
Pai, V. P., Willocq, V., Pitcairn, E. J., Lemire, J. M., Pare, J-F., Shi, N-Q., McLaughlin, K. A., and Levin, M., (2017), Biology Open, 6: 1445-1457

The Zahn Drawings: new illustrations of Xenopus embryo and tadpole stages for studies of craniofacial development
Zahn, N., Levin, M., and Adams, D. S., (2017), Development, 144(15), 2708-2713 [cover]

Bioelectric regulation of innate immune system function in regenerating and intact Xenopus laevis
Pare, J-F., Martyniuk, C. J., and Levin, M., (2017), npj Regenerative Medicine, 2:15

Long-Term, Stochastic Editing of Regenerative Anatomy via Targeting Endogenous Bioelectric Gradients
Durant, F., Morokuma, J., Fields, C., Williams, K., Adams, D. S., and Levin, M., (2017), Biophysical Journal, 112: 2231-2243 [cover]

Planarian regeneration in space: persistent anatomical, behavioral, and bacteriological changes induced by space travel
Morokuma, J., Durant, F. R., Williams, K. B., Finkelstein, J. M., Blackiston, D. J., Clements, T., Reed, D. W., Roberts, M., Jain, M., Kimel, K., Trayger, S. A., Wolfe, B. E., and Levin, M., (2017), Regeneration, 4: 85-102 [cover]

Serotonergic stimulation induces nerve growth and promotes visual learning via posterior eye grafts in a vertebrate model of induced sensory plasticity
Blackiston, D., Khanh, V., and Levin, M., (2017), npj Regenerative Medicine, 2:8

Repeated removal of developing limb buds permanently reduces appendage size in the highly-regenerative axolotl
Bryant, D. M., Sousounis, K., Farkas, J. E., Bryant, S., Thao, N., Guzikowski, A. R., Monaghan, J. R., Levin, M., and Whited, J. L. (2017), Developmental Biology; doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.02.013 [cover]

Discovering novel phenotypes with automatically inferred dynamic models: a partial melanocyte conversion in Xenopus
Lobo, D., Lobikin, M., & Levin, M. (2017), Scientific Reports 7:41339. doi:10.1038/srep41339

Introduction to provocative questions in left–right asymmetry
Levin, M., Klar, A.J.S., & Ramsdell, A. (2016), Philosophical Transactions B, 371: 20150399 [cover]

From cytoskeletal dynamics to organ asymmetry: a nonlinear, regulative pathway underlies left–right patterning
McDowell, G., Rajadurai, S., & Levin, M. (2016), Philosophical Transactions B, 371: 20150409

Top-down Models in biology: explanation and control of complex living systems above the molecular level
Pezzulo, G. & Levin, M. (2016), Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 13: 20160555

Vertically- and horizontally-transmitted memories — the fading boundaries between regeneration and inheritance in planaria
Neuhof, M., Levin, M., & Rechavi, O. (2016), Biology Open, 5(9): 1177-88; doi:10.1242/bio.020149. [cover]

A computational model of planarian regeneration
De, A., Chakravarthy, V.S., & Levin, M. (2016) International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, 1–17; doi:10.1080/17445760.2016.1185521

Physiological controls of large-scale patterning in planarian regeneration: a molecular and computational perspective on growth and form
Durant, F., Lobo, D., Hammelman, J., & Levin, M., (2016), Regeneration, 3(2): 78-102; doi:10.1002/reg2.54 [cover]

Exploring Instructive Physiological Signaling with the Bioelectric Tissue Simulation Engine (BETSE)
Pietak, A. & Levin, M., (2016), Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 4(55): doi:10.3389/fbioe.2016.00055

Physiological inputs regulate species-specific anatomy during embryogenesis and regeneration
Sullivan, K.G., Emmons-Bell, M., & Levin, M., (2016), Communicative & Integrative Biology, 9(4); doi:10.1080/19420889.2016.1192733

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